Раздел 3 «Деловой английский язык»
Практическая работа № 69-77: Профессиональная деятельность специалиста
Учебная цель: написание делового письма, практика ведения телефонных разговоров, переговоров
1. Официальная и неофициальная переписка. Виды писем. Правила оформления писем. Составление и заполнение документов. Введение лексики. Актуализация лексики в упражнениях.
2. Телефонные звонки. Деловые встречи. Переговоры. Выполнение упражнений на развитие навыков устной речи. Аудирование.
3. Отработка грамматического материала по темам: повторение времён страдательного залога; времена Future–in-the-Past; повторение правила согласования времён. Выполнение упражнений на развитие лексико-грамматических навыков.
3. Работа с текстом по теме.
Краткие теоретические и учебно-методические материалы по теме практической работы
Виды деловых писем и правила их оформления (The General Format of a Business Letter)
Mention the date that you are writing the letter on the left side of the letter. Use the day, month and year format eg 2/08/20.
2. Reciever’s Address
Make sure the sender’s address is left aligned as well. It is a good idea to include the sender’s email id or the receiver’s phone number. If you are writing a physical letter, include these details on the envelope.
All business letters should start with a salutation and the name of the person the salutation is addressed to. For example, Respected Bryan Adams. Use their full name and a comma.
4. Body Text
State why you are writing the letter. It is appreciated when business letters are short and to the point. The body text will vary depending on the type of business letter format you are writing.
5. Call to action
Clearly mention the actions that the receiver should take after reading the letter. This will increase the likelihood of them taking the action.
6. Signature Block
Sign off the letter with your name and signature. Ensure that the sign is either in black or blue ink.
Mention enclosures if the letter has any. Enclosures are the attachments to the letter. This will give the receiver a clear idea about what to expect in the envelope.
3 Types of Business Letters
In a broad sense, there are three types of business letters. The type of the letter depends on the purpose of writing the letter and the relationship with the receiver of the letter.
Formal letters are usually written from one business to another. They are to the point and are usually short. Letters written between two companies are usually formal letters.
Informal letters are considered to be friendly and personal letters. They are written when the writer has a non-professional relationship with the receiver. This type of letter format is usually written for communication between two parties. Informal letters are usually longer than formal letters.
Semi-formal letters are business letters that are written to someone that the writer knows but isn’t close with. This letter balances between the formal and informal tone.
Difference between formal and informal letters
The significant points of difference between formal and informal letters are discussed as under:
- A formal letter is one, written in formal language, in the stipulated format, for official purpose. A letter is said to be informal when it is written in a friendly manner, to someone you are familiar with.
- Formal letters are written for official or professional communication. On the other hand, informal letters are used for casual or personal communication.
- There is a manner prescribed for writing formal letters. As opposed to informal communication, which does not follow any format.
- Formal letters are usually written in the third person, however, for business letters, first person is used. On the contrary, informal letters are written in first, second and third person.
- Formal letters are used for writing letters to business, i.e. partners, suppliers, customers, clients, etc., college or institute, employer, professionals, etc. As against this, we use informal letters for writing letters to friends, relatives, acquaintance, etc.
- While writing formal letters, we use passive voice. Conversely, an active and imperative voice is used.
- The sentences we use at the time of writing a formal letter are, long and complex. Unlike an informal letter, where we use short and simple sentences which are easy to interpret.
- The size of a formal letter should be concise; that does not include irrelevant matter. In contrast, the informal letter can be concise or large.
- Formal letters do not include contraction like (didn’t, can’t) and abbreviations rather it uses full forms. As compared to informal letters, which makes use of contraction, abbreviation, idioms, phrasal verbs and even slang and colloquial terms.
Passive voice (страдательный залог)
Future in the Past (будущее в прошедшем)
В английском языке существует еще четыре видовременные формы, связанные с будущим временем. Они ссылаются на будущее с точки зрения некоего момента в прошлом:
We wondered if the train would arrive in time. Мы подумали, прибудет ли поезд вовремя.
Времена Future in the Past употребляются в придаточных предложениях после слов said (that), told (that), thought (that) и т. п.
Различают следующие времена Future in the Past:
Simple Future in the Past
Обозначает действия в будущем, воспринимаемом из прошлого:
He said he would go to the dentist. Он сказал, что пойдет к зубному.
Continuous Future in the Past
Обозначает процесс, который будет длиться в определенный момент будущего, воспринимаемого из прошлого:
He was planning how he would be sipping cocktail on his vacation. Он представлял себе, как будет потягивать коктейль в отпуске.
Perfect Future in the Past
Действие, которое будет закончено к определенному моменту будущего, воспринимаемого из прошлого:
We hoped we should have done our homework by midday. Мы надеялись, что сделаем домашнее задание к полудню.
Perfect Continuous Future in the Past
Чрезвычайно редкое даже в письменной речи время, которое обозначает процесс, который начнется и будет продолжаться до определенного момента в будущем, воспринимаемом из прошлого:
He told us he would have been working on the plant for 30 years next December. Он рассказал нам, что в декабре исполнится 30 лет, как он работает на этом заводе.
Задания для практического занятия:
Exercise 1. Quiz topic: Formal and informal vocabulary. For each of the six questions choose the one correct answer.
1. Dear Mr Smith, We are sorry to _____ that...
a) say you b) let you know c) inform you d) explain you
2. Thank you for bringing this _____ to my attention.
a) thing b) matter c) stuff d) items
3. I am extremely _____ the service I received...
a) dissatisfied with b) dissatisfied from c) cross about d) cross for
4. Hi John, how's it going? _____ my holiday in Spain.
a) I am writing to give you some details regarding... b) I intend to describe... c) I want to tell you about... d) I'd like to say you...
5. As you will see from my CV, I have _____ experience in this area.
a) masses of b) a considerable amount of c) loads of d) great
6. That is all for now. See you tonight! _______, Mary xxxx
a) Yours faithfully b) Yours sincerely c) Best wish d) Love
Exercise 2. Read and trabslate the informal letter. Write down the useful phrases for the informal letter.
Sorry I wasn't able to get to your house warming party last Friday. I was really looking forward to it and I was all ready to leave the house when my aunt from Ireland arrived at the house for a surprise visit!! She was only in town for the one evening before she went to my brother's house so I had to stay with her. I'm really sorry Dazza.
I tried to telephone you but your line was busy the two times when I telephoned. Then I was out with my aunt in town and didn't have the chance to ring again.
I hope you understand. I know you wanted to get me to meet that girl, Yvonne, who you work with. Oh well, next time maybe! My evening was really boring...if that makes you feel any better.
See you soon
Exercise 3. Read the sentences from a formal letter. Fill in with the phrases.
Salutation date complimentary closing signature inside address return address writers typed name body
1. _____ is the place for the writer to handwrite their name. 2. The recipients name, company name, and address are called the _____. 3. The purpose of the letter is included in the _____. 4. Yours truly, is an example of a _____. 5. The last line in a business letter is the _____. 6. The _____ is when the letter is written. 7. The _____ is the address of the letter writer. 8. Dear Mr. Johnson is a _____.
Exercise 4. Read the sample of the formal letter. Choose the correct vocabulary.
Dear Mr Sexton,
I thought I’d write/ I am writing to complain about the state of the yard/condition of the playground. Over the last two weeks, I have noticed loads of rubbish/a great deal of litter. I reckon/It is my opinion that this litter is a health hazard. For example, yesterday a year 4 boy fell over and cut his hand on a broken bottle. The boy I’m talking about/The boy in question needed four stitches. Furthermore/On top of this, the litter is an eyesore. Our school has beautiful views of the river and these are wrecked/spoiled by the litter. I believe/I reckon that there are a load of things/a number of things that you could do to fix/rectify this problem. Firstly, it may be possible for you/you could purchase additional litterbins. This would help stop/prevent people discarding their litter recklessly/willy-nilly. What’s more/In addition, I think that our school needs better/more adequate security to prevent vandals littering. To finish/In conclusion, I hope you will take my concerns seriously and I look forward to your reply/you writing back to me.
Yours Sincerely/Yours Faithfully
Exercise 5. Read the sample of the informal letter. Choose the correct vocabulary.
How are you?/I trust this letter finds you well. I’ve been dead busy/extremely busy since your last letter. We have to work really hard at school to get ready/in preparation for our SATs. Despite this, I did manage to play/partake of a game of football last night with my friends/acquaintances. We won/were victorious! It was boss/outstanding! Also, my dad got me/purchased for me a new mobile telecommunication device/mobile phone. It’s an 8210! Anyway, gotta go/go to cease writing! Speak to you soon. Please write back/please respond swiftly.
Exercise 6. Read the examples of informal letters. Choose one topic and write your own informal letter.
Example 1 Congratulations on a new job
Fairwoods Apartments 42 100 Broad Avenue S.E.
Tulsa, OK 77777 September IB, 2021
Dear Joe, Congratulations on your new job! We were all really happy to hear the good news and wish you the best of luck. Let us know how you're getting along-and when you're coming through Tulsa again. Soon, we hope!
As ever, Ed
Example 2 Congratulation on a birthday
September 15, 2021
Happy Birthday, and many happy returns of the day.
Example 3 Invitation
P.O. Box 7 Golden Sands, FL 44444 June 1, 2021
Dear Prof, and Mrs. Miller,
My family and I would like to invite you to spend the Fourth of July holiday at our summer house on the ocean. Our house is near the beach and you will be free to swim and walk along the shore to your heart's content. We will meet you at the airport and take care of all your transportation. We are looking forward to seeing you and do hope that you can come.
Cordially, Mary Margaret Nelson
Exercise 7. Read the examples of formal letters. Write your own formal letter.
Example 1 Apology
900 Chesapeake Avenue N.W.
Washington, D.C, 20010 September 15, 2021
Dear Mr. Smith: I want to apologize for not having answered your very kind letter sooner, but I have been away on a trip and just returned today. The photographs you sent are beautiful. My family and I appreciate them very much. They are the best kind of remembrance, and we are very grateful. Again, please accept my apologies for the delay. And please give my best regards to your family.
Your student, Alfred Chace
Example 2 Thank you (for a gift)
Broad Branch Road 12 A Littleton, NJ 33333
September 15, 2021
Dear Dr. Malone,
My sister and I want to thank you for the wonderful books which just arrived. They will be extremely useful in our courses this next semester. We deeply appreciate your thoughtfulness. With very best regards.
Sincerely, Agnes and Irene Howe
Example 3 Recommendation letter
Dear Search Committee Chair,
I am writing this letter for Mr. John Smith who has applied for a position in your department. I should start by saying that I cannot recommend him too highly. In fact, there is no other student with whom I can adequately compare him, and I am sure that the amount of mathematics he knows will surprise you. His dissertation is the sort of work you don't expect to see these days. It definitely demonstrates his complete capabilities. In closing, let me say that you will be fortunate if you can get him to work for you.
A. D. Visor (Prof.)
Exercise 7. Here is a format of business letter in English. Choose one type of letters and write your own letter. Use the format.
Read the example of the business letter format. Use it while writing. Change the basic information such as date, names and addresses.
1. Sales Letters
Sales letters are the most common types of letters formats in business. Letters are written to the prospective customer or the target audience to introduce your business and urge them to take action.
This is why sales letters should capture the audience’s attention in its first line.
Things to keep in mind while writing a sales letter:
1. Make the introductory paragraph interesting.
2. Order Letters
An order letter is a type of business letter format that is used to order products or services from a vendor, manufacturer, retailer or a wholesaler.
Things to keep in mind while writing an order letter:
1. Clearly specify the products required.
3. Complaint Letters
As the name suggests, this type of business letter is written to show dissatisfaction with a product or a service.
Things to keep in mind while writing a complaint letter:
1. Write the letter with a clear goal in mind.
4. Apology Letter
Businesses are run by people and people tend to make mistakes. As a business, it is important to acknowledge that mistake and move past it.
Things to keep in mind while writing an apology letter:
1. Acknowledge your mistakes.
5. Inquiry Letters
As the name suggests, inquiry letters are needs to write to inquire about something. It is usually written to seek certain information from the receiver of the letter.
Things to keep in mind while writing an Inquiry letter:
1. Keep the letter short and clear
6. Application of Job letter
A job application letter is sent by an aspiring candidate to the company along with their resume. It provides information about the skills and the experience of a candidate.
Things to keep in mind while writing a job letter:
1. Mention your strengths
7. Job Appointment letter
The Job Appointment letter is the first business document that is given to an employee when they are accepted into the company.
Things to keep in mind while writing a Job Appointment letter:
1. Congratulate the candidate
8. Acknowledgement Letter
The acknowledgement letter is a business letter that simply confirms something. It is used to confirm receiving an order or to acknowledge a mistake from the writer’s end.
Things to keep in mind while writing an acknowledgement letter:
1. Keep it short and simple.
Exercise 8. Read an e-mail and write your own e-mail to a new friend.
Exercise 9. Listen to the phone call. Choose the correct answers (https://www.esl-lab.com/basic-english/telephone-conversations/).
1. May I ask _____ calling?
Ms. Smith, please.
This is Bob Hall.
I'll call tomorrow.
2. I'm sorry, but she's out to _____ right now.
Okay. Lunch time is fine.
I'll call her after lunch.
Okay. I'll call her right now.
3. Could I have your _____ ?
Yes. It's 532-9843.
My name's Greg Rodgers.
My zip code is 09783.
4. _____ message?
No. I'll call later.
Yes. Please give him the message.
Yes. Go ahead.
5. Could _____ please?
I work for Sony.
It's spelled T . . I . . M.
No. I'll call later.
Here's the message.
Okay. Then, I'll meet him now.
Sorry. I can't meet him now.
Do you know when it'll be over?
Have him call me on Wednesday at 3:00.
I'll call him Thursday morning.
Alright. Please tell him Jeff called.
Sorry. I'm busy on Monday at 11:00.
Sure. No problem.
Next Wednesday would be fine.
Yes. I'll call her later.
Yes. Tomorrow is fine.
No. Just tell her I called.
Exercise 9. Match the text message words with their meanings. Read and translate the message.
4…….. c u
c. see you
Exercise 10. Read and translate the text.
Telephones and Voice Mail Telephones and voice mail are valuable business tools only when they generate goodwill and increase productivity. Poor communication techniques can easily offset any benefits arising from improved equipment. Making Productive Telephone Calls Before making a telephone call, decide whether the intended call is really necessary. Could you find the information yourself? If you wait a while, would the problem resolve itself? Perhaps your message could be delivered more efficiently by some other means. Alternatives to telephone calls include e-mail, memos, or calls to voice mail systems. If a telephone call must be made, consider using the following suggestions to make it fully productive: Plan a mini-agenda. Before placing a call, jot down notes regarding all the topics you need to discuss. Following an agenda guarantees not only a complete call but also a quick one. You'll be less likely to wander from the business at hand while rummaging through your mind trying to remember everything. Use a three-point introduction. When placing a call, immediately (1) name the person you are calling, (2) identify yourself and your affiliation, and (3) give a brief explanation of your reason for calling. For example: "May I speak to Larry Lopez? This is Hillary Dahl of Sebastian Enterprises, and I'm seeking information about a software program called Power Presentations." This kind of introduction enables the receiving individual to respond immediately without asking further questions. 13 Be cheerful and accurate. Let your voice show the same kind of animation that you radiate when you greet people in person. In your mind try to envision the individual answering the telephone. A smile can certainly affect the tone of your voice, so smile at that person. Moreover, be accurate about what you say. "Hang on a second; I'll be right back" rarely is true. Better to say, "It may take me two or three minutes to get that information. Would you prefer to hold or have me call you back?" Bring it to a close. The responsibility for ending a call lies with the caller. This is sometimes difficult to do if the other person rambles on. You may need to use suggestive closing language, such as "I've certainly enjoyed talking with you," "I've learned what I needed to know, and now I can proceed with my work," "Thanks for your help," or "I must go now, but may I call you again in the future if I need . . .?" Avoid telephone tag. If you call someone who's not in, ask when it would be best for you to call again. State that you will call at a specific time—and do it. If you ask a person to call you, give a time when you can be reached—and then be sure you are in at that time. Leave complete voice mail messages. Remember that there's no rush when you leave a voice mail message. Always enunciate clearly. And be sure to provide a complete message, including your name, telephone number, and the time and date of your call. Explain your purpose so that the receiver can be ready with the required information when returning your call Receiving Productive Telephone Calls With a little forethought you can make your telephone a productive, efficient work tool. Developing good telephone manners also reflects well on you and on your organization. Identify yourself immediately. In answering your telephone or someone else's, provide your name, title or affiliation, and, possibly, a greeting. For example, "Larry Lopez, Proteus Software. How may I help you?" Force yourself to speak clearly and slowly. Remember that the caller may be unfamiliar with what you are saying and fail to recognize slurred syllables. Be responsive and helpful. If you are in a support role, be sympathetic to 14 callers' needs. Instead of "I don't know," try "That's a good question; let me investigate." Instead of "We can't do that," try "That's a tough one; let's see what we can do." Avoid "No" at the beginning of a sentence. It sounds especially abrasive and displeasing because it suggests total rejection. Be cautious when answering calls for others. Be courteous and helpful, but don't give out confidential information. Better to say, "She's away from her desk" or "He's out of the office" than to report a colleague's exact whereabouts. Take messages carefully. Few things are as frustrating as receiving a potentially important phone message that is illegible. Repeat the spelling of names and verify telephone numbers. Write messages legibly and record their time and date. Promise to give the messages to intended recipients, but don't guarantee return calls. Explain what you're doing when transferring calls. Give a reason for transferring, and identify the extension to which you are directing the call in case the caller is disconnected
Exercise 11. Change these sentences from active to passive.
1. People speak Portuguese in Brazil.
2. The Government is planning a new road near my house.
3. My grandfather built this house in 1943.
4. Picasso was painting Guernica at that time.
5. The cleaner has cleaned the office.
6. He had written three books before 1867.
7. John will tell you later.
8. By this time tomorrow we will have signed the deal.
9. Somebody should do the work.
10. The traffic might have delayed Jimmy.
Exercise 12. Change these sentences from active to passive.
1. They sell oysters in the shop next door.
2. They haven’t delivered the food yet.
3. Shakespeare wrote King Lear.
4. They have to answer the questions on this sheet.
5. Has anybody put the cases upstairs?
6. Someone should take this rubbish away.
7. They’ll ask you a lot of questions.
8. Someone’s going to send her some flowers.
9. They didn’t pay me much for that job.
10. Have they offered him a better job?
11. They told us a secret.
12. Would they lend me their car?
13. People should send their complaints to the head office.
14. They had to postpone the meeting because of illness.
15. They are going to hold next year’s congress in San Francisco.
16. The bill includes service.
17. People don’t use this road very often.
18. They cancelled all the flights because of fog.
19. Somebody accused me of stealing the money.
20. They are building a new ring-road round the city.
Exercise 13. Rewrite this sentences in Future-in-the-Past.
I am afraid I shall be late. Do you think we shall pick all the apples in three days? He hopes you will often visit him. They expect he will be at home in a few days. Are you afraid we shan’t be in time? She promises that she will finish the work in a week. I think Henry will help us. I hope we’ll enjoy the show. She expects he’ll win the race.
Exercise 14. Use the verbs in Future Simple or in Future-in-the-Past.
I know we (not to be) late. I knew we (not to be) late. I want to know whether he (to be) at home. I wanted to know whether he (to be) at home. «When you (to be) ready? » he asked. He asked when I (to be) ready. I can’t say whether Bob (to do) the work perfectly, but he (to do) his best. He asked me whether he (to see) Olga there. Are you sure that we (to have) time to do that? I was afraid he (to say), «I don’t think I (to be) able to come». I did not know what he (to speak) about. I knew your aunt (to bake) special cookies for all her nieces and nephews.